The Queen's speech: bill-by-bill

The 19 coalition bills announced today in the Queen's speech.

There were 19 bills announced in the Queen's seven-minute speech to parliament, here they are for Staggers readers.

Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Bill

Legislation to repeal unnecessary laws and to limit state inspection of businesses.

Banking Reform Bill

Measures to strengthen regulation of the financial services sector.

Implementation of the recommendations of the Independent Commission on Banking (otherwise known as the Vickers report).

Groceries Adjudicator Bill

The establishment of an independent adjudicator to ensure supermarkets deal fairly and lawfully with suppliers.

Small Donations Bill

A bill to allow charities to claim additional payments on small donations.

Energy Bill

Reform of the electricity market to deliver "secure, clean and affordable electricity" and ensure prices are fair.

Draft Water Bill

Reform of the water industry in England and Wales.

Public Service Pensions Bill

Public service pensions will be reformed in line with the recommendations of the independent commission on public service pensions (otherwise known as the Hutton report).

Draft Local Audit Bill

Abolishes the Audit Commission and establishes new arrangements for the audit of local public bodies.

Children and Families Bill

Includes measures to improve provision for disabled children and children with special educational needs, reform of family courts and more flexible parental leave for parents.

Draft Care and Support Bill

A bill to modernise adult care and support in England.

Electoral registration and Administration Bill

Introduces individual registration of voters.

House of Lords reform bill

A bill to reform "the composition" of the House of Lords. This was more tightly-worded than expected.

Crime and Courts Bill

Establishes a National Crime Agency to tackle the most serious and organised crime and strengthen border security.

Defamation Bill

New measures to protect freedom of speech and reform defamation law.

Justice and Security Bill

Will allow secret courts to hear a greater range of evidence in national security cases.

Draft Communications Bill

Legislation to allow the police and intelligence agencies to collect data on communications, such as texts and emails.

European Union (Approval of Treaty Amendment Decision) Bill

Approves the creation of the financial stability mechanism within the euro area.

Croatia Accession Bill

The government will seek parliamentary approval on the anticipated accession of Croatia to the EU.

International Aid

There was no international development bill in the speech (as Richard Darlington predicted on The Staggers last month) but the government reaffirmed its commitment to spend 0.7 per cent of gross national income on international aid from 2013.

Britain's Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, proceed through the Royal Gallery in the Palace of Westminster, home to the Houses of Parliament. Photograph: Getty Images.

George Eaton is political editor of the New Statesman.

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The Brexit effect: The fall in EU migration spells trouble for the UK

The 84,000 fall in net migration to 248,000 will harm an economy that is dependent on immigration.

The UK may not have left the EU yet but Europeans are already leaving it. New figures from the ONS show that 117,000 EU citizens emigrated in 2016 (up 31,000 from 2015) - the highest level for six years. The exodus was most marked among eastern Europeans, with a fall in immigration from the EU8 countries to 48,000 (down 25,000) and a rise in emigration to 43,000 (up 16,000).

As a result, net migration has fallen to 248,000 (down 84,000), the lowest level since 2014. That's still nearly more than double the Conservatives' target of "tens of thousands a year" (reaffirmed in their election manifesto) but the trend is unmistakable. The number of international students, who Theresa May has refused to exclude from the target (despite cabinet pleas), fell by 32,000 to 136,000. And all this before the government has imposed new controls on free movement.

The causes of the UK's unattractiveness are not hard to discern. The pound’s depreciation (which makes British wages less competitive), the spectre of Brexit (May has refused to guarantee EU citizens the right to remain) and a rise in hate crimes and xenophobia are likely to be the main deterrents. Ministers may publicly welcome the figures but many privately acknowledge that they come at a price. The OBR recently forecast that lower migration would cost £6bn a year by 2020-21. As well as reflecting weaker growth, reduced immigration is likely to reinforce it. Migrants pay far more in tax than they claim in benefits, with a net contribution of £7bn a year. An OBR study found that with zero net migration, public sector debt would rise to 145 per cent of GDP by 2062-63, while with high net migration it would fall to 73 per cent.

Brexit has in fact forced ministers to increasingly acknowledge an uncomfortable truth: Britain needs immigrants. Those who boasted during the referendum of their desire to reduce the number of newcomers have been forced to qualify their remarks. Brexit secretary David Davis, for instance, recently conceded that immigration woud not invariably fall after the UK leaves the EU. "I cannot imagine that the policy will be anything other than that which is in the national interest, which means that from time to time we’ll need more, from time to time we’ll need less migrants."

Though Davis insisted that the government would eventually meet its "tens of thousands" target (a level not seen since 1997), he added: "The simple truth is that we have to manage this problem. You’ve got industry dependent on migrants. You’ve got social welfare, the national health service. You have to make sure they continue to work."

As my colleague Julia Rampen has charted, Davis's colleagues have inserted similar caveats. Andrea Leadsom, the Environment Secretary, who warned during the referendum that EU immigration could “overwhelm” Britain, has told farmers that she recognises “how important seasonal labour from the EU is to the everyday running of your businesses”. Others, such as the Health Secretary, Jeremy Hunt, the Business Secretary, Greg Clark, and the Communities Secretary, Sajid Javid, have issued similar guarantees to employers. Brexit is fuelling immigration nimbyism: “Fewer migrants, please, but not in my sector.”

Alongside the new immigration figures, GDP growth in the first quarter of 2017 was revised down to 0.2 per cent - the weakest performance since Q4 2012. In recent history, there has only been one reliable means of reducing net migration: a recession. Newcomers from the EU halved after the 2008 crash. Should the UK suffer the downturn that historic trends predict, it will need immigrants more than ever. Both the government and voters may only miss migrants when they're gone.

George Eaton is political editor of the New Statesman.

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