Comings and goings

Two new arrivals to the island inspire memories of the past

This week, yet another television crew were visiting the island. Throughout the year a steady trickle of journalists, documentary makers and other media types come here to film, record or write about some aspect of life in Fair Isle.

Very often the subject matter is the island’s bird-life, and such publicity is very helpful in attracting much-needed visitors, particularly to the bird observatory. But sometimes the subject is the people themselves, and that can be a little more complicated.

While public interest in the island is, to some extent, understandable and inevitable, to be treated like zoo animals by the media is not. It is very easy in a small place to feel that your own space and privacy is being intruded upon, and so it was this week.

The “story” that brought them here was not really news at all. It was an update on the life of Tommy and Liz, the couple who moved here from New York State about nine months ago. The footage they shot will, I presume, become a short, light-hearted piece to fill the “and finally . . .” space at the end of a news bulletin.

There is an interesting story to be told here though, but I don’t imagine it will find its way into this particular television piece. The story I see is of the fascinating symmetry between Liz and Tommy’s move to Fair Isle, and the reverse westward move of so many Fair Islanders of the past.

Fair Isle, like much of rural Britain and Europe, lost large numbers of people during the peak emigration years, particularly during the latter part of the 19th century. The reasons were many: poor fishing seasons, crop failure, terrible living conditions, and, perhaps most significantly, massive overcrowding.

In the 1861 census there were 380 people living in Fair Isle. This, remember, on an island that now supports just over 70. It was clearly an unsustainable number, and the following year, on a boat called the No Joke, 135 people left the isle in a single day. Their journey would take them via Orkney, Leith and Glasgow, finally reaching New Brunswick in Canada five weeks later. It is said that on the day they left Fair Isle not a single fire went out; such was the level of overcrowding that every vacant home was filled immediately by those who were left behind.

Although that was the greatest single movement of people away from the isle, emigration continued, and by the turn of the century the population had fallen to less that 150 people. It continued to drop during the first half of the 20th century as well, eventually reaching such a low level that abandoning the island completely became, for a while at least, a very real possibility.

But that was not to be. The intervention of ornithologist George Waterston, who bought the island in 1948 and established the Fair Isle Bird Observatory, was to prove a turning point, not only opening the island up to visitors but also bringing enthusiasm and ideas that would help guarantee the continuation of life in Fair Isle.

Later, the National Trust for Scotland became the landlords, and they have also worked hard with the islanders to try to ensure that the population remains at a sustainable level. For some years now it has stayed at around 70, and finding willing islanders is no longer the problem it once was.

For Tommy and Liz to be emigrating from the United States to Fair Isle may be a quirky tale, but it also says much about the journey this island has made in the past 150 years. That is the real story.

Malachy Tallack is 26 and lives in Fair Isle. He is a singer-songwriter, journalist, and editor of the magazine Shetland Life.
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An unmatched font of knowledge

Edinburgh’s global reputation as a knowledge economy is rooted in the performance and international outlook of its four universities.

As sociologist-turned US Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan recognised when asked how to create a world-class city, a strong academic offering is pivotal to any forward-looking, ambitious city. “Build a university,” he said, “and wait 200 years.” He recognised the long-term return such an investment can deliver; how a renowned academic institution can help attract the world. However, in today’s increasingly globalised higher education sector, world-class universities no longer rely on the world coming to come to them – their outlook is increasingly international.

Boasting four world-class universities, Edinburgh not only attracts and retains students from around the world, but also increasingly exports its own distinctively Scottish brand of academic excellence. In fact, 53.9% of the city’s working age population is educated to degree level.

In the most recent QS World University Rankings, the University of Edinburgh was named as the 21st best university in the world, reflecting its reputation for research and teaching. It’s a fact reflected in the latest UK Research Exercise Framework (REF), conducted in 2014, which judged 96% of its academic departments to be producing world-leading research.

Innovation engine

Measured across the UK, annual Gross Value Added (GVA) by University of Edinburgh start-ups contributes more than £164m to the UK economy. In fact, of 262 companies to emerge from the university since the 1960s, 81% remain active today, employing more than 2,700 staff globally. That performance places the University of Edinburgh ahead of institutions such as MIT in terms of the number of start-ups it generates; an innovation hothouse that underlines why one in four graduates remain in Edinburgh and why blue chip brands such as Amazon, IBM and Microsoft all have R&D facilities in the city.

One such spin out making its mark is PureLiFi, founded by Professor Harald Haas to commercialise his groundbreaking research on data transmission using the visible light spectrum. With data transfer speeds 10,000 times faster than radio waves, LiFi not only enables bandwidths of 1 Gigabit/sec but is also far more secure.

Edinburgh’s universities play a pivotal role in the local economy. Through its core operations, knowledge transfer activities and world-class research the University generated £4.9bn in GVA and 44,500 jobs globally, when accounting for international alumni.

With £1.4bn earmarked for estate development over the next 10 years, the University of Edinburgh remains the city’s largest property developer. Its extensive programme of investment includes the soon-to-open Higgs Centre for Innovation. A partnership with the UK Astronomy Technology Centre, the new centre will open next year and will supply business incubation support for potential big data and space technology applications, enabling start-ups to realise the commercial potential of applied research in subjects such as particle physics.

It’s a story of innovation that is mirrored across Edinburgh’s academic landscape. Each university has carved its own areas of academic excellence and research expertise, such as the University of Edinburgh’s renowned School of Informatics, ranked among the world’s elite institutions for Computer Science. 

The future of energy

Research conducted into the economic impact of Heriot-Watt University demonstrated that it generates £278m in annual GVA for the Scottish economy and directly supports more than 6,000 jobs.

Set in 380-acres of picturesque parkland, Heriot-Watt University incorporates the Edinburgh Research Park, the first science park of its kind in the UK and now home to more than 40 companies.

Consistently ranked in the top 25% of UK universities, Heriot-Watt University enjoys an increasingly international reputation underpinned by a strong track record in research. 82% of the institution’s research is considered world-class (REF) – a fact reflected in a record breaking year for the university, attracting £40.6m in research funding in 2015. With an expanding campus in Dubai and last year’s opening of a £35m campus in Malaysia, Heriot-Watt is now among the UK’s top five universities in terms of international presence and numbers of international students.

"In 2015, Heriot-Watt University was ranked 34th overall in the QS ‘Top 50 under 50’ world rankings." 

Its established strengths in industry-related research will be further boosted with the imminent opening of the £20m Lyell Centre. It will become the Scottish headquarters of the British Geological Survey, and research will focus on global issues such as energy supply, environmental impact and climate change. As well as providing laboratory facilities, the new centre will feature a 50,000 litre climate change research aquarium, the UK Natural Environment Research Council Centre for Doctoral Training (CDT) in Oil and Gas, and the Shell Centre for Exploration Geoscience.

International appeal

An increasingly global outlook, supported by a bold international strategy, is helping to drive Edinburgh Napier University’s growth. The university now has more than 4,500 students studying its overseas programmes, through partnerships with institutions in Hong Kong, Singapore, China, Sri Lanka and India.

Edinburgh Napier has been present in Hong Kong for more than 20 years and its impact grows year-on-year. Already the UK’s largest higher education provider in the territory, more than 1,500 students graduated in 2015 alone.

In terms of world-leading research, Edinburgh Napier continues to make its mark, with the REF judging 54% of its research to be either world-class or internationally excellent in 2014. The assessment singled out particular strengths in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, where it was rated the top UK modern university for research impact. Taking into account research, knowledge exchange, as well as student and staff spending, Edinburgh Napier University generates in excess of £201.9m GVA and supports 2,897 jobs in the city economy.

On the south-east side of Edinburgh, Queen Margaret University is Scotland’s first university to have an on-campus Business Gateway, highlighting the emphasis placed on business creation and innovation.

QMU moved up 49 places overall in the 2014 REF, taking it to 80th place in The Times’ rankings for research excellence in the UK. The Framework scored 58% of Queen Margaret’s research as either world-leading or internationally excellent, especially in relation to Speech and Language Sciences, where the University is ranked 2nd in the UK.

In terms of its international appeal, one in five of Queen Margaret’s students now comes from outside the EU, and it is also expanding its overseas programme offer, which already sees courses delivered in Greece, India, Nepal, Saudi Arabia and Singapore.

With 820 years of collective academic excellence to export to the world, Edinburgh enjoys a truly privileged position in the evolving story of academic globalisation and the commercialisation of world-class research and innovation. If he were still around today, Senator Moynihan would no doubt agree – a world-class city indeed.

For further information www.investinedinburgh.com