Friday Arts Diary

Our cultural picks for the week ahead.

Art

Moniker Art Fair, Village Underground, EC2A 3PQ, 11-14 October

Now in its third year, Moniker Art Fair has become a highlight of London's autumnal art week. This year, it has attracted some of the contemporary scene’s most accomplished and renowned artists, including legendary Pop Surrealist Luke Chueh, fresh works from Pam Glew, and the work of Surrealist up-and-comer Nancy Fout

Music

Ether Festival: John Cale. Royal Festival Hall, Sat October 13

A founding member of one of the most defining bands of a generation, the Velvet Underground, John Cale’s return to the Royal Festival Hall coincides with the release of his cryptically titled Shifty Adventures in Nookie Wood, which is out this week.  His experimentalist verve and willingness to explore new artistic frontiers ensures that he remains an unstoppable force on the contemporary scene.

Literature

Durham Book Festival, 13-30 October

Durham Book Festival returns for another edition this month. It is jointly produced by New Writing North with Durham Country Council and Durham University. From prose to poetry, the festival programme includes events spanning a wide spectrum of topics at various locations in County Durham and at iconic venues in the city itself. The festival boasts a host of newly commissioned work from the likes of Michael Smith and Carol Ann Duffy.

Festival

Inside Out Festival, London (various venues), 22-28 October

In association with The Times Higher Education and the New Statesman, the Culture Capital Exchange delivers the third instalment of the Inside Out Festival. The programme includes 50 eclectic events taking place across the capital over the course of the week, ranging from talks, panel debates, performances and exhibitions. The festival offers the chance to experience in person some of the city’s most celebrated thinkers, including Will Self, Michael Morpurgo and Bidisha. Most events free, but require booking.

Theatre

All That Fall, Jermyn Street Theatre, until 3 November

Originally commissioned by the BBC as a radio play in 1957, Samuel Beckett’s All that Falls charts the journey of Maddy Rooney, a 70-something unwieldy woman as she trudges across country back roads to meet her blind husband. All that Falls is a bawdy comedy with a life affirming charm, full of superb one-liners, even if they are somewhat spiked by intimations of mortality. Although not originally conceived for stage, All that Falls offers a rare opportunity to experience a superlative cast – including Michael Gambon and the excellent Eileen Atkins – in an intimate, 70-seater setting. 

Michael Gambon and Eileen Atkins in Samuel Beckett's All That Fall. Photo: Alastair Muir
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Why do we talk to ourselves? A new book investigates the voices in our heads

The Voices Within by Charles Fernyhough is an ear-opening book – and an important corrective to myths about schizophrenia, the brain and even our self of sense.

You’re going to be late for that meeting; you haven’t even left the house. But where’s your wallet? It’s not in your pocket, it’s not in your bag – come on, come on, you’ve got to find it. Where on Earth could it be? If you’re like me, that “come on, come on” will be sounding vividly in your head as you stomp from room to room. You’re issuing a silent instruction to yourself. But how does this inner voice really work? What purpose does it serve? Does everyone hear something similar? These are some of the questions that Charles Fernyhough sets out to investigate in The Voices Within.

Fernyhough is an interesting fellow. A professor at Durham University, he began his career in developmental psychology, with a focus on social, emotional and cognitive development. But in recent years he has shifted his attention to the study of psychosis – particularly the phenomenon of voice-hearing, in which the inner voice is not the speaker’s own, helpfully assisting in the search for a lost wallet, but seemingly external, often frightening, dismissive or commanding.

People who experience this are often simply labelled “schizophrenic” – a “highly misunderstood term”, Fernyhough writes. The word, coined in 1908 by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler, invokes alarm: “The sound of its sibilant label triggers fear and prejudice.” One of the aims of this book is to question that prejudice and to consider other ways of thinking about these “external” voices, setting them on a continuum with the dialogue we all conduct with ourselves.

But it is more than merely science that informs the author’s attention to how the sound of a word can influence its effect on its hearers. Fernyhough is also a novelist and not a little of this book is concerned
with another expression of the inner voice – the creation and consumption of fiction. When Fernyhough asked 1,500 people whether they heard the voices of fictional characters in their heads, 80 per cent said that they did; one in seven “said that those voices were as vivid as hearing an actual person speaking”. Many novelists report the experience of building their characters as being observational as much as it is creative. Fernyhough quotes David Mitchell describing his occupation as a kind of “controlled personality disorder . . . To make it work, you have to concentrate on the voices and get them talking to each other.” Fernyhough’s fine description of how it feels to read fiction is an expert blend of the scientific and artistic:

The voices we encounter in a novel can express our desires, threaten our safety, challenge our morals and speak of what cannot be said. They take us into a place of expanded possibilities where we can try on other identities. Through their expert control of these fictional voices, novelists lead us into a controlled dissolution of the self, and then bring us back safely to who we are.

What happens when that dissolution of the self is not controlled? Fernyhough introduces us to Jay, who hears the voices in his head as having different accents, pitches and tones. There is Adam, who lives with a voice he knows as the Captain; the Captain is a hard taskmaster, ordering Adam around, berating him, letting him know who’s boss. And yet, while Adam struggles with the Captain, he doesn’t long for his disappearance. “It feels like you’ve got a mate looking out for you as well,” Adam says.

The Dutch psychiatrist Marius Romme is a pioneer of the Hearing Voices Movement, which aims to remove the stigma often attached to the phenomenon of voice-hearing and instead pays attention to the information (about childhood trauma, for example) that those voices bring to the surface. Fernyhough discusses this approach with sensitivity and warmth.

The trouble is, as the author demonstrates, that discovering what is going on in the individual’s brain isn’t simple. Although voices, as he writes, can give us clues to “the fragmentary constitution of an ordinary human self”, the nature of that self – how my self makes itself distinct from your self, whether the voices in my head “sound” different to the ones in yours – is one of the central problems of both philosophy and science. Fernyhough doesn’t skimp on the science when demonstrating the difficulties that arise from “self-reporting”: inner voices must, by necessity, always be described by the person experiencing them.

The book traces in detail (the footnotes are just as interesting as the text) the various attempts to pin down inner voices, whether those involve MRI scans or something called “Descriptive Experience Sampling” (DES), by which volunteers describe exactly what they are thinking when a beeper goes off in their ears. Yet there is still a fascinating gap between science and experience: it remains impossible to express what those voices really sound like to each person who hears them.

The voices within have always been with us and this is a book of history as well as one concerned with science and art. In centuries past, our ancestors seemed rather more certain of the source of the voices that rang inside them. Fernyhough doesn’t neglect those who knew that what they heard was the voice of God – or the gods.

His discussion of Margery Kempe, the 14th-century English mystic whose recounting of her spiritual life lays claim to being the first autobiography written in the language, is particularly sensitive. And he is careful of the retrospective “reductionist dishing-out of diagnoses” when it comes to figures such as Kempe, or Julian of Norwich, or Joan of Arc. His role as a scientist does not prevent him from recognising Kempe’s experience as what it must have been for her – “an inner conversation with a very special substance: the relationship between a woman and her God”. The brain’s conversation was once perceived as mystic. Even if that is no longer wholly the case, much mystery remains.

The Voices Within: the History and Science of How We Talk to Ourselves by Charles Fernyhough is published by Profile Books/Wellcome Collection (319pp, £16.99)

Erica Wagner is a New Statesman contributing writer and a judge of the 2014 Man Booker Prize. A former literary editor of the Times, her books include Ariel's Gift: Ted Hughes, Sylvia Plath and the Story of “Birthday Letters” and Seizure.

This article first appeared in the 26 May 2016 issue of the New Statesman, The Brexit odd squad