The Friday Arts Diary

Our cultural picks for the week ahead.

Music

Barbican Centre, London, EC2: The Cinematic Orchestra, 30 June

The Barbican hosts Jason Swinscoe's Ninja Tunes project. Combining jazz improvisation, sampled soundtrack music, film images and dance music tropes, this orchestra achieves a variety and beauty not to be underestimated. Originally written for a string quartet, from visuals such as René Clair’s surrealist Entr’acte (The Cinematic Orchestra) and Peter Tscherkassky’s Outer Space (Dorian Concept and Tom Chant), the final product has a depth of emotion which can take the breath away. This is their final date in the UK before they move on to Italy.

Literature

Hampstead Heath, London: Walking Book Club, 1 July

This week the book-lovers from the Walking Book Club will turn to Vita Sackville-West’s All Passion Spent. Written as a fictional companion to Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own, this novel follows newly-widowed Lady Slane as she rents a house in Hampstead to begin a new life. Introducing the reader to a variety of Lady Slane’s new friends and a few figures from her past, this novel extols the virtues of following one’s desires, no matter how late in life. This free event, open to all readers and their walking companions, offers participants a chance to discuss the book in an informal setting.

Cinema

Queen of Hoxton, London, EC2: Easy Rider, 1st July

The Rooftop Film Club gives cinema lovers an opportunity to see classic films in the open air. On Sunday they give their screen over to Easy Rider, the 1969 classic directed by and starring Dennis Hopper. Easy Rider is the tale of two bikers who head from LA to Florida to retire after a major cocaine sale. A cult favourite, this film discusses themes of freedom, boundaries and establishment and offers a detailed portrait of its time.

Theatre

AE Harris and mac Birmingham, Birmingham: Be Festival 2nd July- 8th July

This year’s Be Festival is the third to be held in Birmingham as part of a Europe-wide project to unite cultures and individuals through theatre. This year, mac Birmingham will host the winning show from the BE festival 2011, As the Flames rose, we danced to the sirens, the sirens by the Sleepwalk Collective. AE Harris will show four thirty-minute shows each night from  this year’s entrants, each accompanied by dinner, music, drinks and an after show party. All shows come from across the continent and are designed to be viewed and understood by everyone, regardless of language.

Exhibitions

Piper Gallery, London W1: Inaugural exhibition: Then and Now: Edward Allington and Vaughan Grylls

This week marks the launch of a new contemporary art gallery. Piper Gallery will represent artists who are continuing to produce innovative work at least 40 years into their careers. Those exhibiting include Edward Allington, Tess Jaray and Francis West.

The Cinematic Orchestra will be playing at the Barbican Centre on 30th June. Photo: Getty Images
Davide Restivo at Wikimedia Commons
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Scientists have finally said it: alcohol causes cancer

Enough of "linked" and "attributable": a new paper concludes that alcohol directly causes seven types of cancer.

I don't blame you if you switch off completely at the words "causes cancer". If you pay attention to certain publications, everything from sunbeds, to fish, to not getting enough sun, can all cause cancer. But this time, it's worth listening.

The journal Addiction has published a paper that makes a simple, yet startling, claim: 

"Evidence can support the judgement that alcohol causes cancer of the oropharynx [part of the throat], larynx, oesophagus, liver, colon, rectum and [female] breast"

So what's especially significant about this? 

First, scientists, unlike journalists, are very wary of the word "causes". It's hard to ever prove that one action directly led to another, rather than that both happened to occur within the same scenario. And yet Jennie Connor, author of the paper and professor in the Preventive and Social Medicine department at the University of Otago, New Zealand, has taken the leap.

Second, alcohol not only causes cancer of one kind – the evidence supports the claim that it causes cancer at seven different sites in our bodies. There was weaker evidence that it may also cause skin, prostate and pancreatic cancer, while the link between mouth cancers and alcohol consumption was the strongest. 

What did we know about alcohol and cancer before?

Many, many studies have "linked" cancer to alcohol, or argued that some cases may be "attributable" to alcohol consumption. 

This paper loooks back over a decade's worth of research into alcohol and cancer, and Connor concludes that all this evidence, taken together, proves that alcohol "increases the incidence of [cancer] in the population".

However, as Connor notes in her paper, "alcohol’s causal role is perceived to be more complex than tobacco's", partly because we still don't know exactly how alcohol causes cancer at these sites. Yet she argues that the evidence alone is enough to prove the cause, even if we don't know exactly how the "biologial mechanisms" work. 

Does this mean that drinking = cancer, then?

No. A causal link doesn't mean one thing always leads to the other. Also, cancer in these seven sites was shown to have what's called a "dose-response" relationship, which means the more you drink, the more you increase your chances of cancer.

On the bright side, scientists have also found that if you stop drinking altogether, you can reduce your chances back down again.

Are moderate drinkers off the hook?

Nope. Rather devastatingly, Connor notes that moderate drinkers bear a "considerable" portion of the cancer risk, and that targeting only heavy drinkers with alcohol risk reduction campaigns would have "limited" impact. 

What does this mean for public health? 

This is the tricky bit. In the paper, Connor points out that, given what we know about lung cancer and tobacco, the general advice is simply not to smoke. Now, a strong link proven over years of research may suggest the same about drinking, an activity society views as a bit risky but generally harmless.

Yet in 2012, it's estimated that alcohol-attributable cancers killed half a million people, which made up 5.8 per cent of cancer deaths worldwide. As we better understand the links between the two, it's possible that this proportion may turn out to be a lot higher. 

As she was doing the research, Connor commented:

"We've grown up with thinking cancer is very mysterious, we don't know what causes it and it's frightening, so to think that something as ordinary as drinking is associated with cancer I think is quite difficult."

What do we do now?

Drink less. The one semi-silver lining in the study is that the quantity of alcohol you consume has a real bearing on your risk of developing these cancers. 

On a wider scale, it looks like we need to recalibrate society's perspective on drinking. Drug campaigners have long pointed out that alcohol, while legal, is one of the most toxic and harmful drugs available  an argument that this study will bolster.

In January, England's chief medical officer Sally Davies introduced some of the strictest guidelines on alcohol consumption in the world, and later shocked a parliamentary hearing by saying that drinking could cause breast cancer.

"I would like people to take their choice knowing the issues," she told the hearing, "And do as I do when I reach for my glass of wine and think... do I want to raise my risk of breast cancer?"

Now, it's beginning to look like she was ahead of the curve. 

Barbara Speed is a technology and digital culture writer at the New Statesman and a staff writer at CityMetric.