Does the Earth need a space fence?

Being hit by space junk is rubbish.

Last week, NASA confirmed that the International Space Station may have to be moved or risk being hit by a sizeable lump of Russian space junk. With hundreds of thousands of pieces of debris littering the atmosphere, has our desire for space exploration inadvertently created a volatile and hazardous junkyard?

The danger was posed by defunct Russian military satellite Kosmos 2251, infamous for colliding with US satellite Iridium-33 in February 2009. The incident sent hundreds of pieces of debris spiralling out of control in Earth’s atmospheric orbit, adding to the debris currently tracked by the US Air Force.

Of course, this is an issue entirely of our own doing. Years of launching satellites without an afterthought for the abandoned rocket components have left Earth’s geostationary orbit more congested than the M25 on a Friday evening.

There is, however, a solution. Short of erecting a series of 2,000km-high concrete posts and wooden panels, NASA hopes to track objects orbiting the planet using what it has called the "Space Fence". Three radar sites, with one already chosen to be located on Kwajalein Island, part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, will help the administration track up to 200,000 pieces of debris simultaneously.

The US military’s current equivalent, the Space Surveillance Network, tracks a catalogue of 15,000-20,000 identified pieces of debris, ensuring that operators of satellites and installations are warned of potential collisions. With a burgeoning number of nations now edging towards becoming space-able this catalogue needs to be expanded, and Space Fence offers to do just that.

Not only will objects be tracked and future collisions reconstructed, but the system’s processing power will be capable of determining the best possible launch window for satellites and shuttles. Space Fence will essentially act as NASA’s very own traffic management system.

At an expected cost of $6.1bn, Space Fence represents the single largest investment from the US Air Force in Space Situational Awareness, and what is likely to become one of the most expensive clean-up jobs in history.

Liam is the aerospace and defence features writer for the NRI Digital network.

Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Aki Hoshide on board the International Space Station. Photograph: Getty Images/NASA

Liam Stoker is the aerospace and defence features writer for the NRI Digital network.

Image: Shutterstock
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Are you ready to comply with the EU GDPR?

Alan Calder, the founder and executive chairman of IT Governance, discusses the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and how your organisation can achieve compliance.

The EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) will supersede the UK Data Protection Act 1998 on 25 May 2018, introducing new obligations for all organisations that process the personal data of EU residents.

The GDPR introduces significant changes in the areas of data subject and child consent, privacy by design, data breach notification, international data transfers and data protection officers, among others.

With the prospect of multi-million pound fines for non-compliance, and less than two years until the Regulation is enforced, organisations in the UK should urgently be considering what they need to do to comply.

The skills and resources required under the GDPR

The GDPR requires certain organisations to appoint a data protection officer (DPO). The role of a DPO includes informing and advising the controller and processor of their data protection obligations, monitoring the organisation’s compliance and performance, providing advice on data protection impact assessments, and giving due regard to risks associated with data processing operations. DPOs must have the legal and information security knowledge and skills necessary to help organisations achieve compliance with the Regulation.

As an expert in information security and data protection compliance, IT Governance has developed Europe’s first certified EU General Data Protection Regulation Foundation and Practitioner training courses to help individuals who are involved in data protection or who are looking to fulfil the role of data protection officer in order to achieve compliance with the Regulation. The certified training programme is designed to equip individuals with a comprehensive understanding of the GDPR requirements and a practical guide to planning, implementing and maintaining compliance with the GDPR.  

Inform GDPR transition planning through data flow mapping and gap analysis

An important first step in achieving compliance with the GDPR is to review your organisation’s data flows. A data flow audit will allow your organisation to map the locations of all personally identifiable information (PII), gain visibility over your data flows, develop effective strategies to protect PII, improve data lifecycle management and introduce efficiencies into your processes, and reduce privacy-related risks. 

Organisations that plan to comply with the GDPR but that lack visibility over their data flows are encouraged to conduct a data flow audit. The process involves mapping out the organisation’s data flows to get a comprehensive understanding of the sources from which the data flows. IT Governance can help organisations prepare for the GDPR with an extensive data flow audit that will enable you to identify the measures, policies and procedures needed to reduce the risk of a data breach.

Implement technical and organisational measures with ISO 27001

ISO 27001 is the international best-practice standard for information security management and encompasses three essentials aspects: people, processes and technology. The Standard is designed not only to defend your company against technology-based risks but also to prevent common security issues such as those caused by lack of staff awareness around current threats or ineffective information security procedures.  

Moreover, the GDPR clearly states that “the controller and the processor shall implement appropriate technical and organisational measures to ensure a level of security appropriate to the risk”. These measures relate to personal data encryption and pseudonymisation; access and availability of data; the confidentiality, integrity and availability of processing systems and services; and regular assessment and evaluation of technical and organisational measures to ensure the security of processing.

An ISO 27001-compliant information security management system (ISMS) is founded on an enterprise-wide a culture of information security, led by the board. It necessitates that your organisation’s information security strategy be constantly monitored, updated and reviewed, and this process is amenable to helping you implement the technical and organisational measures of the GDPR.   

ISO 27001 can help you meet parallel GDPR and NIS Directive requirements

The NIS Directive, which is set to come into force at the same time as the GDPR, is designed to help organisations within the EU achieve a common level of security across their networks and information systems. The Directive applies to organisations providing essential services in sectors such as finance, energy and transport, as well as digital service providers.

Similar to the GDPR, the NIS Directive requires a robust ISMS and encourages a security culture. As a result, more and more organisations preparing to comply with both the GDPR and the NIS Directive are also seeking certification to ISO 27001. The Standard contains information security requirements that, when met, can allow your organisation to centralise and simplify your compliance efforts for the NIS Directive and the GDPR.

IT Governance’s ISO 27001 packaged solutions can help you tackle your organisation’s GDPR and NIS Directive compliance requirements as well as implement a robust  ISMS. The ISO 27001 packaged solutions provide a unique blend of expertly developed tools and resources that complement your organisation’s skills and resources at a fixed price and in a timely manner.

To find out more about GDPR compliance or ISO 27001 packaged solutions please visit (, email, or call us on +44 (0)845 070 1750.

Alan Calder is the founder and executive chairman of IT Governance.