Regenerative Medicine Rising in the East

Asian markets at the forefront of regenerative medicine advancements.

Across the pharmaceutical industry, the Asia-Pacific has grown in importance, attracting big pharma to the region with its easy access to patient populations and low manufacturing costs.  In addition, generic drug manufacturing has massively boosted the market. However, one area in which the Asia-Pacific has really been forging its own path is in regenerative medicine. Encompassing stem cell therapy, gene therapy and tissue engineering, this innovative area of science offers the chance to repair damaged tissue and restore proper functioning to cells. It is an area of increasing interest globally, with massive potential, as demand for novel curative and reparative therapies soars as a result of the growing aged populations and rising incidence of cancers and chronic diseases. However, to date, regulatory bodies have been unwilling to approve gene therapies and stem cell therapies in the west, because of the unproven nature of the science. Instead, Asia-Pacific countries have emerged at the forefront of the commercial clinical use of these pioneering approaches.

China has led the way in gene therapy approvals to date, with Gendicine and Oncorine hitting the market in 2003 and 2005 respectively. These approvals demonstrated an important fact – that China was serious about developing regenerative medicine, sensing an opportunity to enter a young, growing market at an early stage and attract industry attention with favourable approval mechanisms. This has been replicated across other Asia-Pacific countries. In South Korea, the world’s first approved clinical stem cell treatment is Hearticellgram-AMI from FCB-Pharmicell, which uses a stem cell transplant from the patient to improve heart function. This was approved in 2011 and was followed by two other stem cell therapies in 2012. Their long-term success in the market has yet to be determined, but they represent important milestones in regenerative medicine commercialisation. Singapore, meanwhile, has made a deliberate effort to set itself up as a hub of regenerative medicine research.

It isn’t just local companies that are getting in on the action in the Asia-Pacific – US company Epieus Biotechnologies commercialised its cancer gene therapy Rexin-G in the Phillippines, and US companies such as Vical and Genzyme have entered into collaborations with Asian companies.

Some of the same advantages that make approval easier in countries such as China also damage the country’s chances of leading the industry, however. Regulations governing approval are less strict, which has led to the early approvals of therapies such as Gendicine and Oncorine. This lack of stringency in the requirements for approval has meant that without extensive further testing, the therapies cannot enter other markets such as the US and EU. In addition, there is general scepticism as to the actual benefit of therapies approved without detailed clinical trial data. In addition, despite China having a high number of patients with head and neck cancer who could benefit from the approved therapies, reimbursement and insurance coverage limitations for Chinese citizens mean that access is severely restricted. Consequently, the revenues of therapies such as Gendicine, previously predicted as having blockbuster potential, have remained stubbornly disappointing. Benda Pharmaceuticals, who own the rights to the product, was worth only $4.1m in 2010.

The unproven and unfamiliar nature of the science has led to caution from regulatory bodies and has been a frustrating deterrent to R&D by industry in the US and EU, but high patient populations, more permissive approval processes and a desire to gain a competitive advantage in a developing area with high growth potential have given the Asia-Pacific a head start in regenerative medicine. Western governments and industry are paying increasing attention to the region, attempting to ensure that they are not losing ground in the regenerative medicine market but also keen to leverage the opportunities offered in the Asia-Pacific as acceptance, demand and expertise flourish there. 

Amy Baker is a Life Science Analyst at GBI Research

Photograph: Getty Images

Amy Baker is a Life Science Analyst at GBI Research.

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What David Hockney has to tell us about football

Why the sudden glut of blond footballers? A conversation I had with the artist back in 1966 gave me a clue. . .

In 1966, I went to interview David Hockney at a rather run-down flat in Bayswater, central London. He was 28 and had just won a gold medal at the Royal College of Art.

In his lavatory, I noticed a cut-out photograph from a newspaper of Denis Law scoring a goal. I asked if he was a football fan. He said no, he just liked Denis Law’s thighs.

The sub-editors cut that remark out of the story, to save any gossip or legal problems. In 1966 homosexual activity could still be an offence.

Hockney and a friend had recently been in the United States and had been watching an advert on TV that said “Blondes have more fun”. At two o’clock in the morning, slightly drunk, they both went out, bought some hair dye and became blond. Hockney decided to remain blond from then on, though he has naturally dark hair.

Is it true that blonds have more fun? Lionel Messi presumably thinks so, otherwise why has he greeted this brand-new season with that weird blond hair? We look at his face, his figure, his posture and we know it’s him – then we blink, thinking what the heck, does he realise some joker has been pouring stuff on his head?

He has always been such a staid, old-fashioned-looking lad, never messing around with his hair till now. Neymar, beside him, has gone even blonder, but somehow we expect it of him. He had foony hair even before he left Brazil.

Over here, blonds are popping up all over the shop. Most teams now have a born-again blondie. It must take a fortune for Marouane Fellaini of Man United to brighten up his hair, as he has so much. But it’s already fading. Cheapskate.

Mesut Özil of Arsenal held back, not going the full head, just bits of it, which I suspect is a clue to his wavering, hesitant personality. His colleague Aaron Ramsey has almost the full blond monty. Paul Pogba of Man United has a sort of blond streak, more like a marker pen than a makeover. His colleague Phil Jones has appeared blond, but he seems to have disappeared from the team sheet. Samir Nasri of Man City went startlingly blond, but is on loan to Seville, so we’re not able to enjoy his locks. And Didier Ndong of Sunderland is a striking blond, thanks to gallons of bleach.

Remember the Romanians in the 1998 World Cup? They suddenly appeared blond, every one of them. God, that was brilliant. One of my all-time best World Cup moments, and I was at Wembley in 1966.

So, why do they do it? Well, Hockney was right, in a sense. Not to have more fun – meaning more sex – because top footballers are more than well supplied, but because their normal working lives are on the whole devoid of fun.

They can’t stuff their faces with fast food, drink themselves stupid, stay up all night, take a few silly pills – which is what many of our healthy 25-year-old lads consider a reasonably fun evening. Nor can they spend all their millions on fun hols, such as skiing in the winter, a safari in the spring, or hang-gliding at the weekend. Prem players have to be so boringly sensible these days, or their foreign managers will be screaming at them in their funny foreign accents.

While not on the pitch, or training, which takes up only a few hours a day, the boredom is appalling, endlessly on planes or coaches or in some hotel that could be anywhere.

The only bright spot in the long days is to look in the mirror and think: “Hmm, I wonder what highlights would look like? I’ve done the beard and the tattoos. Now let’s go for blond. Wow, gorgeous.”

They influence each other, being simple souls, so when one dyes his hair, depending on where he is in the macho pecking order, others follow. They put in the day by looking at themselves. Harmless fun. Bless ’em.

But I expect all the faux blonds to have gone by Christmas. Along with Mourinho. I said that to myself the moment he arrived in Manchester, smirking away. Pep will see him off. OK then, let’s say Easter at the latest . . . 

Hunter Davies is a journalist, broadcaster and profilic author perhaps best known for writing about the Beatles. He is an ardent Tottenham fan and writes a regular column on football for the New Statesman.

This article first appeared in the 22 September 2016 issue of the New Statesman, The New Times