Profile: Elizabeth Pisani

Elizabeth Pisani is an epidemiologist, who has spent a decade specialising in HIV/Aids. Lucy Knight

Early Life

Born in 1964 to an American father and an English mother, Elizabeth Pisani found herself placed in a number of different British schools throughout Europe.

Eventually her family arrived in Dorset where she took her O-levels. She then attended a sixth form college in Richmond. It was probably the peripatetic existence while growing up that left Pisani with itchy feet - a desire not be settled. “I’m lucky really to have been able to live in different countries that could make me curious." At 18 her parents moved to the States, where her brother stayed.

And then she became acquainted with the East. “I visited a school friend who was living in Hong Kong and I absolutely loved it. The energy and the bustle were somehow similar to New York where I’d been spending a lot of time, but it was also totally unlike anything else I’d known. Up until that point home had been wherever we were living but here was my first sense of foreignness. I was taken with the idea that there was a quarter of humanity in one country and that I couldn’t communicate with them.” She then later made a bet with someone that she’d read Chinese at Oxford. And what is her Chinese like now? “Well, I can speak it when it comes to discussing the contraction of Aids but then I’ll have trouble remembering the word for spoon.”

Journalism

Once she had her MA she spent time travelling around China and Tibet. It was from there, after considerable ‘wandering’, that she joined Reuters as a graduate trainee in Hong Kong. During the 80s and 90s she work in bureaux in China, Delhi, then Indonesia. “The bureaux I was working in were very small and so I got to cover all sorts of stories.” These ranged from Tiananmen Square to the Indonesian stock market.

And Indonesia got under her skin. She says now it remains a very big part of her life. It was while here that Pisani became interested in population. “The countries I had worked in were three of the then five most populated in the world and I was not enjoying being stuck to a desk. And decided to go learn something new.”

While taking her MSc in medical demography at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Pisani discovered epidemiology. “I did both for a while when I went back to Vietnam, writing reports and so on but then I just drifted more and more into the HIV work.” She then also took a PhD in infectious diseases.

Epidemiology

Pisani began a 10 year career working in the field of Aids prevention. “What drew me in? Sex and drugs! Well, I’m interested in politics and how the world works and Aids brings these things together.”

Pisani started at the Centre for Population Studies, working independently for the United Nations (UN), the World Health Organisation (WHO) and then for several Asian charities.

In Asia, Pisani became involved in research of sexually transmitted infections and sexual and drug-taking behaviours in Indonesia, East Timor, Bangladesh, the Philippines and China; discovering that sex and drugs were the major contributory factor to a global epidemic.

“Effective epidemiology is not unlike investigative journalism, the skill base is similar and so I was good at it.”

But the results aren't necessarily that, well, sexy. Pisani feels that her battle has been dealing with governments and publics that want to hear the quirky facts. “In epidemiology you look for the normal. And I cannot tell you how many people have come up to me and said ‘oh men in Africa spread it by fucking virgins because they think it will cure them!’ It drives me mad because that is not the reason why several million people on one continent have it.” As she writes in her book - 'The Wisdom of Whores: Bureaucrats, Brothels and the Business of AIDS' - "HIV is mostly about people doing stupid things in the pursuit of pleasure or money".

Sex and Drugs

For Pisani the challenge was changing what was driving public policy on Aids prevention. Rather than look at the driving force - sex and drugs - governments instead preferred the sanitised causes like “migration, gender, poverty and development”.

These were the criteria to gain funding. Pisani found an industry hemmed in by political correctness. And she is controversial, refusing to hold back on Africa either. In a recent BBC interview she remarked: “’Africans have a lot of sex’ there I’ve said it!”

On sex workers she is not about to say the oldest profession should be curtailed, rather legalised and regulated. “Plenty of men and women choose to sell sex”.

Pisani is of the belief that Islam and Christianity have been obstructive in the fight against Aids.

The latter, she argues, has been one of the single biggest influences on HIV policy in the US.

And, as she said earlier this year, “policies based in morality, not reality, don’t work”.

The President's Emergency Plan For Aids Relief (Pepfar), has put $65bn into the industry but only for those who sign up to certain conditions, such as condemning prostitution.

Pisani believes the millions of dollars that goes on treatment are also part of the problem.

In an interview with the Guardian earlier this year she said: “You only have to look at the experience of the UK or US gay communities where we've had more or less universal access to ARVs (antiretroviral drugs) for at least eight or nine years, and the number of new infections are rising.

"More people are living longer with HIV, and there is what we call behavioural disinhibition: 'Fuck the condoms; I don't need them any more, because if he's positive he'll be on drugs, so he probably won't infect me. And if I do get infected, it would be annoying, but not the end of the world.'

The book

“It has been, interestingly, essentially big noise but it’s a generalised sigh of relief. I’ve been a bit of a drama queen but there are a lot in the industry that have said it for a long time, it’s just I’ve packaged it in a different form.” The establishment may react by saying that Pisani has said nothing new but she replies with “well why is nothing changing?”

“I don’t think of myself as a campaigner or an activist. There are lots of people working hard and are frustrated. I just get impatient. I’m probably better placed as, well, as a hack.”

And the prevention of Aids? She wants clean needles and condoms, that is her simple solution. As she told the Guardian: “I don't get how it's OK to keep someone alive once they're sick - but not OK to stop them getting sick. I just don't get that."

Elizabeth Pisani is the author of 'The Wisdom of Whores: Bureaucrats, Brothels and the Business of AIDS'

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We need to talk about the online radicalisation of young, white women

Alt-right women are less visible than their tiki torch-carrying male counterparts - but they still exist. 

In November 2016, the writer and TED speaker Siyanda Mohutsiwa tweeted a ground-breaking observation. “When we talk about online radicalisation we always talk about Muslims. But the radicalisation of white men online is at astronomical levels,” she wrote, inspiring a series of mainstream articles on the topic (“We need to talk about the online radicalisation of young, white men,” wrote Abi Wilkinson in The Guardian). It is now commonly accepted that online radicalisation is not limited to the work of Isis, which uses social media to spread propaganda and recruit new members. Young, white men frequently form alt-right and neo-Nazi beliefs online.

But this narrative, too, is missing something. When it comes to online radicalisation into extreme right-wing, white supremacist, or racist views, women are far from immune.

“It’s a really slow process to be brainwashed really,” says Alexandra*, a 22-year-old former-racist who adopted extreme views during the United States presidential election of 2016. In particular, she believed white people to be more intelligent than people of colour. “It definitely felt like being indoctrinated into a cult.”

Alexandra was “indoctrinated” on 4Chan, the imageboard site where openly racist views flourish, especially on boards such as /pol/. It is a common misconception that 4Chan is only used by loser, basement-dwelling men. In actuality, 4Chan’s official figures acknowledge 30 percent of its users are female. More women may frequent 4Chan and /pol/ than it first appears, as many do not announce their gender on the site because of its “Tits or GTFO” culture. Even when women do reveal themselves, they are often believed to be men who are lying for attention.

“There are actually a lot of females on 4chan, they just don't really say. Most of the time it just isn't relevant,” says Alexandra. Her experiences on the site are similar to male users who are radicalised by /pol/’s far-right rhetoric. “They sowed the seeds of doubt with memes,” she laughs apprehensively. “Dumb memes and stuff and jokes…

“[Then] I was shown really bullshit studies that stated that some races were inferior to others like… I know now that that’s bogus science, it was bad statistics, but I never bothered to actually look into the truth myself, I just believed what was told to me.”

To be clear, online alt-right radicalisation still skews majority male (and men make up most of the extreme far-right, though women have always played a role in white supremacist movements). The alt-right frequently recruits from misogynistic forums where they prey on sexually-frustrated males and feed them increasingly extreme beliefs. But Alexandra’s story reveals that more women are part of radical right-wing online spaces than might first be apparent.

“You’d think that it would never happen to you, that you would never hold such horrible views," says Alexandra. "But it just happened really slowly and I didn't even notice it until too late."

***

We are less inclined to talk about radical alt-right and neo-Nazi women because they are less inclined to carry out radical acts. Photographs that emerged from the white nationalist rally in Charlottesville this weekend revealed that it was mostly polo shirt-wearing young, white men picking up tiki torches, shouting racial slurs, and fighting with counter-protestors. The white supremacist and alt-right terror attacks of the last year have also been committed by men, not women. But just because women aren’t as visible doesn’t mean they are not culpable.  

“Even when people are alt-right or sympathisers with Isis, it’s a tiny percentage of people who are willing or eager to die for those reasons and those people typically have significant personal problems and mental health issues, or suicidal motives,” explains Adam Lankford, author of The Myth of Martyrdom: What Really Drives Suicide Bombers, Rampage Shooters, and Other Self-Destructive Killers.

“Both men and women can play a huge role in terms of shaping the radicalised rhetoric that then influences those rare people who commit a crime.”

Prominent alt-right women often publicly admit that their role is more behind-the-scenes. Ayla Stewart runs the blog Wife With a Purpose, where she writes about “white culture” and traditional values. She was scheduled to speak at the Charlottesville “Unite the Right” rally before dropping out due to safety concerns. In a blog post entitled “#Charlottesville May Have Redefined Women’s Roles in the Alt Right”, she writes:

“I’ve decided that the growth of the movement has necessitated that I pick and choose my involvement as a woman more carefully and that I’m more mindful to chose [sic] women’s roles only.”

These roles include public speaking (only when her husband is present), gaining medical skills, and “listening to our men” in order to provide moral support. Stewart declined to be interviewed for this piece.

It is clear, therefore, that alt-right women do not have to carry out violence to be radical or radicalised. In some cases, they are complicit in the violence that does occur. Lankford gives the example of the Camp Chapman attack, committed by a male Jordanian suicide bomber against a CIA base in Afghanistan.

“What the research suggests in that case was the guy who ultimately committed the suicide bombing may have been less radical than his wife,” he explains. “His wife was actually pushing him to be more radical and shaming him for his lack of courage.” 

***

Just because women are less likely to be violent doesn’t mean they are incapable of it.

Angela King is a former neo-Nazi who went to prison for her part in the armed robbery and assault of a Jewish shop owner. She now runs Life After Hate, a non-profit that aims to help former right-wing extremists. While part of a skinhead gang, it was her job to recruit other women to the cause.

“I was well known for the violence I was willing to inflict on others… often times the men would come up to me and say we don’t want to physically hurt a woman so can you take care of this,” King explains. “When I brought other women in I looked for the same qualities in them that I thought I had in myself.”

King's 1999 mugshot

 

These traits, King explains, were anger and a previous history of violence. She was 15 when she became involved with neo-Nazis, and explains that struggles with her sexuality and bullying had made her into a violent teenager.

“I was bullied verbally for years. I didn't fit in, I was socially awkward,” she says. One incident in particular stands out. Aged 12, King was physically bullied for the first time.

“I was humiliated in a way that even today I still am humiliated by this experience,” she says. One day, King made the mistake of sitting at a desk that “belonged” to a bully. “She started a fight with me in front of the entire class… I’ve always struggled with weight so I was a little bit pudgy, I had my little training bra on, and during the fight she ripped my shirt open in front of the entire class.

“At that age, having absolutely no self-confidence, I made the decision that if I became the bully, and took her place, I could never be humiliated like that again.”

Angela King, aged 18

King’s story is important because when it comes to online radicalisation, the cliché is that bullied, “loser” men are drawn to these alt-right and neo-Nazi communities. The most prominent women in the far-right (such as Stewart, and Lauren Southern, a YouTuber) are traditionally attractive and successful, with long blonde hair and flashing smiles. In actuality, women that are drawn to the movement online might be struggling, like King, to be socially accepted. This in no way justifies or excuses extreme behaviour, but can go some way to explaining how and why certain young women are radicalised. 

“At the age of 15 I had been bullied, raped. I had started down a negative path you know, experimenting with drugs, drinking, theft. And I was dealing with what I would call an acute identity crisis and essentially I was a very, very angry young woman who was socially awkward who did not feel like I had a place in the world, that I fit in anywhere. And I had no self-confidence or self-esteem. I hated everything about myself.”

King explains that Life After Hate’s research reveals that there are often non-ideological based precursors that lead people to far right groups. “Individuals don’t go to hate groups because they already hate everyone, they go seeking something. They go to fill some type of void in their lives that they’re not getting.”

None of this, of course, excuses the actions and beliefs of far-right extremists, but it does go some way to explaining how “normal” young people can be radicalised online. I ask Alexandra, the former 4Chan racist, if anything else was going on in her life when she was drawn towards extreme beliefs.

“Yes, I was lonely,” she admits.                                                       

***

That lonely men and women can both be radicalised in the insidious corners of the internet shouldn’t be surprising. For years, Isis has recruited vulnerable young women online, with children as young as 15 becoming "jihadi brides". We have now acknowledged that the cliché of virginal, spotty men being driven to far-right hate excludes the college-educated, clean-cut white men who made up much of the Unite the Right rally last weekend. We now must realise that right-wing women, too, are radicalised online, and they, too, are culpable for radical acts.  

It is often assumed that extremist women are radicalised by their husbands or fathers, which is aided by statements by far-right women themselves. The YouTuber, Southern, for example, once said:  

“Anytime they [the left] talk about the alt-right, they make it sound like it’s just about a bunch of guys in basements. They don’t mention that these guys have wives – supportive wives, who go to these meet-ups and these conferences – who are there – so I think it’s great for right-wing women to show themselves. We are here. You’re wrong.”

Although there is truth in this statement, women don’t have to have far-right husbands, brothers, or fathers in order to be drawn to white supremacist or alt-right movements. Although it doesn’t seem the alt-right are actively preying on young white women the same way they prey on young white men, many women are involved in online spaces that we wrongly assume are male-only. There are other spaces, such as Reddit's r/Hawtschwitz, where neo-Nazi women upload nude and naked selfies, carving a specific space for themselves in the online far-right. 

When we speak of women radicalised by husbands and fathers, we misallocate blame. Alexandra deeply regrets her choices, but she accepts they were her own. “I’m not going to deny that what I did was bad because I have to take responsibility for my actions,” she says.

Alexandra, who was “historically left-wing”, was first drawn to 4Chan when she became frustrated with the “self-righteousness” of the website Tumblr, favoured by liberal teens. Although she frequented the site's board for talking about anime, /a/, not /pol/, she found neo-Nazi and white supremacist beliefs were spread there too. 

“I was just like really fed up with the far left,” she says, “There was a lot of stuff I didn't like, like blaming males for everything.” From this, Alexandra became anti-feminist and this is how she was incrementally exposed to anti-Semitic and racist beliefs. This parallels the story of many radicalised males on 4Chan, who turn to the site from hatred of feminists or indeed, all women. 

 “What I was doing was racist, like I – deep down I didn't really fully believe it in my heart, but the seeds of doubt were sowed again and it was a way to fit in. Like, if you don't regurgitate their opinions exactly they’ll just bully you and run you off.”

King’s life changed in prison, where Jamaican inmates befriended her and she was forced to reassess her worldview. Alexandra now considers herself “basically” free from prejudices, but says trying to rid herself of extreme beliefs is like “detoxing from drugs”. She began questioning 4Chan when she first realised that they genuinely wanted Donald Trump to become president. “I thought that supporting Trump was just a dumb meme on the internet,” she says.

Nowadays, King dedicates her life to helping young people escape from far-right extremism. "Those of us who were involved a few decades ago we did not have this type of technology, cell phones were not the slim white phones we have today, they were giant boxes," she says. "With the younger individuals who contact us who grew up with this technology, we're definitely seeing people who initially stumbled across the violent far-right online and the same holds for men and women.

"Instead of having to be out in public in a giant rally or Klan meeting, individuals find hate online."

* Name has been changed

Amelia Tait is a technology and digital culture writer at the New Statesman.